Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb <p>Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, ISSN (online): 2338-0772, is a communication media and a scientific publication in the field of medical science published by Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya.</p> <p>Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya is a <strong>B accredited national journal</strong> based on the Decree of the Directorate General of Strengthening Research and Development of the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education Republic of Indonesia No. <strong>040/P/2014 dated February 14, 2014. </strong></p> <p>The accreditation status has been renewed base on the Decree of Director General on Strengthening Research and Development of the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education Republic of Indonesia <strong>23/E/KPT/2019, August 8, 2019</strong>, accredited as <strong>SINTA 2.</strong></p> <p>Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya contains articles from research focused on basic medicine, clinical medicine, epidemiology, and preventive medicine (social medicine).</p> <p>Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya is regularly published twice in one year (at the end of February and at the end of August). Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya was first published in April 1984.</p> <p>Brawijaya Medical Journal has been indexed in <a title="Google Scholar" href="https://jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/management/settings/context//index.php/jkb/manager/setup/Jurnal%20Kedokteran%20Brawijaya%20is%20published%20twice%20a%20year,%20at%20the%20end%20of%20February%20and%20at%20the%20end%20of%20August.%20Jurnal%20Kedokteran%20Brawijaya%20was%20first%20published%20in%20April%201984.%20ISSN%20(print)%200216-9347,%20ISSN%20(online)%202338-0772.">Google Scholar</a>, <a title="Portal Garuda/Inonesian Publication Index (IPI)" href="http://id.portalgaruda.org/?ref=browse&amp;mod=viewjournal&amp;journal=4387">Portal Garuda / Indonesian Publication Index (IPI)</a>, <a title="SINTA" href="http://sinta2.ristekdikti.go.id/journals/detail?id=759">SINTA Science and Technology Index</a>, and <a title="CrossReff" href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=jurnal+kedokteran+brawijaya">CossReff</a>.</p> <p>Citation Profile at <a title="Google Scholar" href="https://scholar.google.co.id/citations?user=SEmvMR4AAAAJ&amp;hl=id&amp;authuser=1">Google Scholar</a> as of October 2023:</p> <p>Number of citations: 4487</p> <p>h-index: 29</p> <p>index i10: 131</p> Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya en-US Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya 0216-9347 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> Promising Anthelmintic Properties of Papaya (Carica Papaya) Extract: A Literature Study https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3412 <p><em>Helminthiasis is a lurking health issue worldwide. Currently, available anthelmintics focus on the benzimidazole group, despite their side effects and threats of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, exploration of novel compounds with anthelmintic properties is crucial. Papaya (Carica papaya) contains active compounds with prospective anthelmintic properties. This literature review discusses the potential of papaya as an anthelmintic agent. We screened publications from indexed journals in English and Indonesian published between 2013–2023 covering topics of C. papaya active compounds and their anthelmintic properties. Seeds, leaves, bark, and stems of papaya showed various degrees of anthelmintic properties. Studies reported its efficacy against several helminth species with good safety profiles. C. papaya extract can be a promising anthelmintic candidate. Aside from its abundance, its effectiveness and safety yielded satisfactory results. Further research is needed to elicit the mechanism of C. papaya as a novel therapeutic modality for parasitic infections.</em></p> Syanur An-Nisa Silma Amalia Putri M Luqman Affandi Aulia Rahmi Pawestri Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 The Effect of Social Support on Adolescent Mental Health: Literatur Review https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3386 <p><em>Adolescence is a period that experiences many changes in hormonal, physical, psychological, and social aspects. If not controlled properly, these changes can lead to mental disorders in adolescents. This study aims to explore the relationship between social support and adolescent mental health through literature review. </em><em>The review analyzed articles sourced from </em><em>Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as a database with a range of publications between 2012-2022 using the keywords mental health, social support, and adolescents. There were 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria. </em><em>The result showed that adolescents' mental health is largely determined by the social support surrounding them. Adolescents who lack social support from their families, teachers, and peers will result in bad effects of their mental health. The social support of the nuclear family, especially parents, played a very important role in adolescent mental health. In addition, the factor of the history of adolescents also needed to be considered as a risk factor. </em><em>Therefore, there is a need for interventions in understanding social support to families, teachers, and adolescents, as well as further research in this topic. </em></p> Ana Pujianti Harahap Andi Daramusseng Risza Choirunissa Sri Achadi Nugraheni Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 The Potential of Shell Extract as a Hemostasis and Wound Healing Agent: A Literature Review https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3355 <p class="Englishversionofabstract">Hemostasis is an emergency medical treatment to reduce pain and patient mortality, therefore research is being developed to find effective hemostasis. The utilization of natural materials for hemostasis and wound healing is rapidly expanding, including chitosan found in shell extracts. Chitosan is obtained from chitin found in the soft shells of marine animals such as squid, shrimp, and crabs, or from hard shells such as clams, crabs, and lobsters. Chitosan offers advantages such as good biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, and has been widely used in biomedical, chemical, food, and cosmetic industries. This literature review aims to investigate the potential of shell extracts, particularly the characteristics of chitosan, in wound healing across hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling stages. The study results indicate that extracts from shells containing chitosan exhibit varying characteristics in terms of molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Chitosan with higher molecular weight and degree of deacetylation tends to yield better outcomes in hemostasis and wound healing. The material is effective in reducing antithrombin, enhancing blood clotting processes, and aiding clot formation. Increased molecular weight contributes to stimulating various cytokines, such as TNF-α, TGF-ß1, and FGF2, which play a key role in the wound healing process. Additionally, higher degree of deacetylation chitosan is effective in stimulating fibroblast proliferation. Chitosan also influences VEGF in inducing angiogenesis and enhancing neovascularization in bone healing. Chitosan from shell extracts with certain molecular weight characteristics and degree of deacetylation has the potential to be the material of choice for accelerating hemostasis and wound healing.</p> Putri Erlyn Irfannuddin Irfannuddin Krisna Murti Aldes Lesbani Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Review of Determinants of Nonmedical Caesarean Section in Indonesia: A Systematic Review https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3469 <p class="Englishversionofabstract">Caesarean section (C-section) delivery has increased worldwide. The number of deliveries using the C-section procedure at the age of 10–54 years in Indonesia reached up to 17.6% of the total number of deliveries, due to the presence of medical and nonmedical indications. This study aims to analyze about nonmedical indications of C-section. This study uses a systematic review method. The inclusion criteria for the investigated studies were articles published in 2011–2021, written in English or Bahasa Indonesia, observational studies with case control or cohort as the design, and available to be downloaded in full text. In total, 12 articles were included in this systematic review. The nonmedical factors that influence the C-section procedure are antenatal care, the mother’s level of education, residency, health insurance, socio-economics, occupation, previous birth histories, the mother’s demand, the family’s support and decision-making, and doctor’s referral. The government, through the help of health practitioners, needs to increase the education to pregnant women and their families regarding the advantages and disadvantages of their preferred delivery methods.</p> Sigit Nurfianto Rachmad Suhanda Ferina Agustia Yuarta Priska Refani Thyrister Nina Asarya Sembiring Dhea Sofiana Mellazulfa Yoriko Laurentina Yeni Yeni Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 The First Experience and Benefits of the 12-week VIVIFRAIL Exercise and Its Workout Music Selection for Elder Adults in the Community of Ardirejo, Kepanjen https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3440 <p><em>The </em><em>VIVIFRAIL</em><em> program is an Multi Component Physical Exercise (MPC) program which includes strength trainings, aerobics, gait trainings, balance and flexibility exercises tailored for each individual, and designed to facilitate evidence-based exercise interventions for elder adults. This program, which is unprecedented in Indonesia, is targeting elder adults in the pre-frail stage who are aiming for robust or fit status. This study utilizes a qualitative method with 15 older adults as the respondents. The data was collected from semi-structured interviews to encourage respondents to openly share their experience on the VIVIFRAIL program. The</em><em> C</em><em>onsolidate criteria for </em><em>R</em><em>eporting Qualitative research</em><em> (</em><em>COREQ) method is used for reporting. The objective of this study is to find out the elderly's first experience of participating in VIVIFRAIL exercise and its benefits in returning the elderly's physical performance to robust or fit status as well as the selection of accompanying music during the 12 week exercise in the </em><em>Ward Area of </em><em>Ardirejo, Kepanjen District. The results showed that our respondents experienced positive feeling and felt physically fit and fresh. They could also monitor their blood pressure and train their balance to avoid falling. Moreover, after getting the benefit, respondents expected that the program could be continued. As for the workout music selection, respondents chose Javanese traditional music (gending), dangdut/koplo, local music, campursari, oldies songs, and Malangan songs for accompanying their exercise. In conclusion, after participating in the VIVIFRAIL program for 12 weeks, the respondents felt positive and physically fit and fresh.</em></p> Sri Sunarti Victoria Maya Kurniawati Fifi Afifatus Zakiya Marshanda Shella Pramesta Rita Sulistyaningsih Harien Lestari Iftinan Amalia Silmy Marintan Trio Trio Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 The Characteristics of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Patients at Dr. T.C. Hillers Regional Hospital Maumere https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3437 <p><em>Preeclampsia can occur from the time the mother is pregnant until 48 hours to 6 weeks after giving birth and is associated with an increased complication rate of 2-8% during pregnancy, contributing to 9 - 26% of maternal deaths. This condition can have significant prolonged effects on both the mother and the baby. Considering the high rates of morbidity and mortality in mothers and babies due to preeclampsia, this study aims to understand the characteristics of patients with preeclampsia at T.C. Hillers Regional Hospital of Maumere within the period of January 1<sup>st</sup> to December 31<sup>st</sup>, 2022. This study is a retrospective descriptive study using secondary data. The data collection was performed on patients diagnosed with preeclampsia and eclampsia during the study period. The results showed that most participants were between 20-34 years old, had a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25, multigravida (had multiple pregnancies), housewives, High School graduates, and had a history of chronic hypertension. Based on risk factors, 35.5% of the subjects were ≥ 35 years old, 31% were primigravida (first-time pregnant), 26% were obese, 21% had a history of hypertension in previous pregnancies, 10,5% had chronic hypertension, 3% had multiple gestations, 1% of the subjects had a pregnancy interval &gt;10 years, and 0.5% had diabetes mellitus. This study provides an overview of the characteristics and risk factors of pregnant women with preeclampsia in Maumere.</em></p> I Gede Bagus Sentosa Rommy Andika Kurniawan Advent CT Conterius Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Correlation between the Degree of Psychological Stress with Pain Intensity in Tension-Type Headache Patients https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3433 <p class="Englishversionofabstract"><span lang="EN-US">Tension-Type Headache (TTH) is a critical health problem, particularly in Indonesia, with psychological stress being the most recognized contributing factor. The mechanism by which stress contributes to TTH is not fully understood, but stress has been found to increase pain sensitivity in peripheral or central patients with TTH, alongside the influence of biopsychosocial factors in different individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between the degree of psychological stress and pain intensity in patients with TTH at Dr. H. Moch Ansari Saleh Banjarmasin General Hospital. This observational analytic study was carried out using a cross-sectional approach and the 30 samples employed were taken through a systematic random sampling technique. The data was analyzed using Spearman’s test. Our result showed that 63.33% of patients had mild stress, while 36.67% were moderate. In the mild stress group, there were 15.79% mild pain, 73.68% moderate pain, and 10.53% severe pain. Meanwhile, in the moderate stress group, 72.73% reported moderate pain, and 27.27% had severe pain. In conclusion, this study indicated there was a correlation between the degree of psychological stress and the intensity of pain in TTH patients, despite not statistically significant (p=0.102 and R=0.304).</span></p> Pagan Pambudi Oktaviana Sidabutar Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Citronella oil Against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans by In Vitro Study https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3410 <p><em>Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) are the main microorganisms that cause cavities. This could lead to infection, tissue damage around the teeth, abscesses, and focal infection to other organs. Natural compounds with anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities are currently widely used as products or as additives in the prevention of dental caries, since the wide spread of antibiotic resistance. Citronella (Cymbopogon citratus) is abundant and easy to grow in tropical countries, such as Indonesia. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of citronella oil (Cymbopogon citratus) against the growth of microorganisms S. mutans and C. albicans based on Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). The broth dilution method was performed with Citronella oil concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125%, and 0.2% chlorhexidine as control. MIC values were determined based on absorbance spectrophotometry and MBC values were determined from agar plates using the scatter method. Biofilm eradication test was performed by crystal-violet staining and the absorbance was measured. MIC and MBC values of citronella oil against S. mutans were at concentrations of 25% and 100%, respectively, and MIC and MBC values on C. albicans were obtained at concentrations of 50% and 100%, respectively. It is concluded that citronella oil has antibacterial and antifungal activity.</em></p> Agung Novianto Wahyu Widowati Vinna Kurniwati Sugiaman Afif Yati Nindia Salsabila Rizal Rizal Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Modification of qSOFA Increases Mortality Prediction Accuracy in Sepsis Patients https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3435 <p class="Englishversionofabstract">The Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) is a simple parameter, however, its sensitivity as a mortality predictor is low. This study aimed to improve the predictor performance of qSOFA for in-hospital mortality. This study was a retrospective single-centered cohort using medical record data. This study included 150 patients aged 18-80 years old, who experienced sepsis and received ICU care between September 2021 and August 2022. qSOFA and modified ROX index (mROX) were calculated based on the most severe condition recorded in the emergency department (ED). Each variable’s area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, sensitivity, and specificity were compared to predict in-hospital mortality. qSOFA scores ≥2 and mROX values ≤3.20 were independent factors that increased the risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 3.69 and 21.50; p 0.004 and 0.005, respectively). The combination of qSOFA scores ≥2 and mROX value ≤3.20 as in-hospital mortality predictors resulted in AUROC 0.791 with a sensitivity of 71.7% and specificity of 75.7%. The AUROC, sensitivity, and specificity of the combination of qSOFA and mROX were higher than qSOFA (0.766, 70.8%, 70.3%) or mROX (0.760, 68.1%, 67.6%) alone. In conclusion, the combination of qSOFA scores ≥2 and mROX values ≤3.20 increase the sensitivity and specificity for predicting in-hospital mortality in sepsis patients.</p> Erik Jaya Gunawan Salmon Charles Pardoman Tua Siahaan Areta Idarto Florence Pribadi Lidya Handayani Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Conservative Management of Early Grade Unilateral Reinke's Edema with Laryngopharyngeal Reflux https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3384 <p>Reinke's edema is described as fluid-filled vocal folds in the Reinke's space. Unilateral cases are uncommon and might caused by gastrointestinal reflux. We report a 61-year-old man with complaints of hoarseness since one year ago, which was getting worse for the past two months. Examination of the reflux symptom index (RSI) obtained a score of 23 and reflux finding score (RFS) score of 11. Examination of the flexible fiber laryngoscopy showed that the right vocal fold size was thicker than the contralateral side, greyish in color, soft, and did not bleed easily. The patient was then given conservative therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), corticosteroids, and mucolytics, accompanied by lifestyle modifications. Clinical improvement was found at four weeks of evaluation. In conclusion, the response to conservative therapy and elimination of risk factors for early-stage Reinke's edema contributes well to disease recovery, particularly those caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux.</p> Sutji Pratiwi Rahardjo Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Recurrent Severe Spasmophylia from Hypocalcaemia: A Case Report Rekurensi Spasmofilia Berat Akibat Hipokalsemia: Studi Kasus https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3453 <p>Hypocalcemia, though relatively uncommon in outpatient settings, can manifest with a wide range of clinical<br>symptoms and signs. Muscle cramps and tetany are indicative of heightened excitability in either peripheral<br>nerves or the central nervous system in cases of nerve-related hypocalcemia. We presented a case of a 58-year-<br>old female who complained of persistent muscle cramps and pain affecting both her upper and lower<br>extremities. Through careful physical, neurophysiological, and radiological examinations, we were able to<br>identify hypocalcemia as the primary cause of her severe muscle spasms and cramps, known as spasmophilia.<br>Further detailed history-taking revealed a past total thyroidectomy. Administration of adequate calcium<br>supplementation relieved the symptoms.</p> Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon Ruth Vanessa Gloria Sinaga Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 Malaria Falciparum in Pregnancy: A Case Series from an Endemic Area https://www.jkb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jkb/article/view/3439 <p><em>Malaria is a public health issue worldwide, especially in tropical area</em><em>s</em><em> such as Indonesia. Malaria </em><em>in</em><em> pregnant women lead</em><em>s</em><em> to increased risks of anemia, low birth weight, and fetal death. In this study, we reported two cases of malaria in pregnancy</em> <em>in Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara, an endemic area, after several years with zero cases</em><em>. The first case was </em><em>malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy, while t</em><em>he second case was </em><em>malaria</em> <em>with </em><em>anemi</em><em>a and </em><em>thrombocytopenia</em><em> in the second trimester of pregnancy</em><em>. Both patients were treated with supportive therapies and a combination of </em><em>d</em><em>ihydroartemisinin-</em><em>p</em><em>iperaquine</em><em> (DHP)</em><em> 1x3 tablet</em><em>s</em><em> orally for three days, leading to</em><em> a</em> <em>favourable</em><em> outcome. Both cases showed that </em><em>early</em><em> diagnosis and combination therapy with</em><em> the correct antimalarial agent</em><em> is effective for malaria in pregnancy.</em></p> I Gede Sentosa Rommy Andika Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2024 Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29