Risk Factors for Mortality Due to Covid-19: A Case Study at a Distric Hospital in March-September 2020


  • Luthfiana Husnaini Utami Airlangga University
  • Dyah Yulia Ariani
  • Oskar Renagalih Amarta




Covid-19, in-hospital mortality, risk factor


The Covid-19 pandemic, which becomes a global health problem, has widely impacted not only health but also social, economic, and politics in Indonesia. Previous studies have indicated that the patient's prognosis is influenced by the degree of disease, age, gender, and comorbidities. District hospital in Bojonegoro is a Covid-19 referral hospital and 37,1 % of patients who died in march-september 2020. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for death in patients with Covid-19 in hospital so we can reduce casa fatality rate in district hospital in Bojonegoro. The independent variables in the study were age, gender, and comorbid status, while the dependent variable was the output status (recovered or deceased). The study was conducted at a private hospital in East Java in October 2020 on 104 patients as subjects. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. The results show that all the factors studied, age p = 0.006, gender p = 0.050, and comorbid status p = 0.001, have a statistically significant relationship with mortality. In short, at this hospital, advanced age, male gender, and comorbidities are the risk factors for Covid-19 death.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Luthfiana Husnaini Utami, Airlangga University

Administration and Public Policy


Burhan E, Susanto AD, Nasution SA, et al. Pedoman Tata Laksana Covid-19. Jakarta; PDPI, PERKI, PAPDI, PERDATIN, IDAI; 2020.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2020.

Lu H, Stratton CW, and Tang YW. Outbreak of Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan China: the Mystery and the Miracle. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020; 92(4): 401-402.

Siagian TH. Mencari Kelompok Berisiko Tinggi Terinfeksi Virus Corona dengan Discourse Network Analysis. Jurnal Kebijakan Kesehatan Indonesia. 2020; 9(2): 98-106.

Caramelo F, Ferreira N, and Oliveiros B. Estimation of Risk Factors for COVID-19 Mortality - Preliminary Results. MedRXiv. 2020; 2: 1-12.

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency

Response Epidemiology Team. The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019

Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) in China. China Center for Disease Control and Prevention Weekly. 2020; 41(2):145-151.

Ilpaj SM and Nurwati N. Analisis Pengaruh Angka Kematian Akibat Covid-19 terhadap Kesehatan Jiwa Masyarakat di Indonesia. Focus: Jurnal Pekerjaan Sosial. 2020; 3(1): 16-32.

Klein SL and Flanagan KL. Sex Differences in Immune Responses. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2016; 16(10): 626-638.

Giefing‐Kröll C, Berger P, Lepperdinger G, and Grubeck‐Loebenstein B. How Sex and Age

Affect Immune Responses, Susceptibility to Infections, and Response to Vaccination. Aging Cell. 2015; 14(3): 309-321.

Ng J, Kishan B, Russell R, and Falkous C. COVID-19 Mortality Rates by Age and Gender: Why Is the Disease Killing More Men than Women? (Online) 2020.https://www.rgare.com/docs/default-source/knowledge-center-articles/ covid-19_mortality_age_gender.pdf?sfvrsn=5806a7ea_4

Drew C and Adisasmita AC. Gejala dan Komorbid yang Memengaruhi Mortalitas Pasien Positif COVID-19 di Jakarta Timur, Maret-September 2020. Tarumanagara Medical Journal. 2021; 3(2): 274-283.

Chairani I. Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 dalam Perspektif Gender di Indonesia. Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia. 2020; Edisi Spesial: Demografi dan Covid-19 di Indonesia: 39-42

Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, et al. Predictors of Mortality for Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia Caused by SARS-Cov-2: A Prospective Cohort Study. Europian Respiratory Journal. 2020; 59(3): 1-29.



2022-03-05 — Updated on 2022-04-11




Case Report